Inside Yoga – Explore the sensation, not the shape.

Familiarize yourself with a sensory and very safe approach to yoga practice. Begin to notice what it is like to be inside the lanscape of the body. We don’t have a body; we are a body.

I don’t expect students to perform perfect postures/shapes, I encourage them to notice what is happening in the body, to be interested in small changes ; to find out how to be comfortable in their own skin.

Above all, as a Scaravelli-inspired teacher, I follow Vanda Scaravelli’s watchwords:

.. …Do not kill the instinct of the body for the glory of the pose….


How perceptive are we in Yoga Practice?

Perception is a key element in yoga practice – in life generally – and it requires patience. It can take a long time for something to “click”, for an idea, a thought to “land”.  It can take a long time for us to notice something in our yoga practice – in particular, I believe that it can take a long time to understand relaxation and to recognize tension.
Why is this?
Perhaps it is due to our trying to make changes to the way we move, live life, manage work etc by focusing upon thinking in a different way.  You know the formula – perhaps if we think differently, we can change our behaviour?  This is true, to a certain extent but it is “top down” processing which does not always take into account the many complex processes that affect our thinking; the many layers of which we would be wise to be aware.
Dr Alan Watkins is a neuroscientist by background who elaborates upon this in a TED talk linked below.  He uses this illustration:
***with thanks to
Dr Watkins suggests that for real change to take place, we have to start with our physiology – our body data.  Awareness of this body data is called feelings. Watkins says that we can’t sort out Feelings before we sort out our emotions.  He notes that feelings and emotions are different – that we need to be aware (perceptive) in order to feel what is going on.  He illustrates the specific physiological data produced by anxiety – showing the effect upon a volunteer’s heart rate.
Watkins’ talk is interesting and it reminded me of something that Pete Blackaby taught some years ago along the lines of  “emotions come first, then feeling, then the mind kicks in..”  I wrote this down, have been using it as a guide in my teaching but, in truth,  its significance has taken a long time to “land”.  Like Alan Watkins,  Antonio Damasio, an American- Portuguese neuroscientist whose main field is neurobiology says that “…In order to understand “feeling” we need to understand what an emotion is. ..”  Watkins defines it as “energy in motion”. Damasio says that it  is a complex process of actions.  Some actions are movements – ie change in our face and body when we are afraid; or movements that are internal -that happen in the heart or gut.  Essentially, emotion is movement and action in the broadest sense.


Emotional response has been laid down through evolution to enable us to cope with threat (eg. predators) and to take opportunities (eg. food) without spending too much time on thinking around many options.   Emotion is largely non-conscious but when we feel it happening and we connect the feeling to what we are perceiving the whole process is made conscious and it “enters your mind flow” (Damasio). Now, some …years later…I think that I know what Pete meant when he said “emotions come first, then feeling, then the mind kicks in..”

How does this help us in our yoga practice?

Emotions occur when the “stakes” outside the organism are fairly high in a positive or negative direction.  If we can’t recognize the difference between tension and relaxation, if we stop breathing in order to achieve a specific shape then we will hold onto tension and creates stiffness, thereby interfering with the natural balance of the body.  By practising in a relaxed way, by seeking to find the most comfortable way to move, we listen to the physiological messages that are the bedrock of our feelings and thoughts.   Equally, if we can’t sense that the body is under-supported then our structure suffers also.  Perhaps in this mode of practice real change can happen




A friend has shared this quote which sums up much of what I write about our yoga.  It is helpful to simply notice in our practice and to abandon the quest to be “right”.  It is uncommon that we can all be right but we can all have a chance at freedom of movement .  This does, I think, reduce anxiety.

Anxiety can be present in a yoga class if there is an expectation (can be self-induced) that there is a perfect pose/shape to be achieved.  The shape of a yoga asana is the visible “proof” of our practice but there can be a conflict between how we sense ourselves and we how think others see us.  The emotional connection or disconnect between these two perspectives can be anxiety-inducing, I think.

Recently, a student was struck by the fact that one movement was beneficial to her but produced discomfort in another student.  The movement was a combination of getting up/down from kneeling and it created an opportunity to discuss how each student might notice when discomfort (stiffening) occurs and whether anything extra is being added to the movement – compensation that may well make the tension habitual.  An example of this would be a limp that continues and becomes habitual after an injury has healed.  If we notice tension by staying in the moment and not anticipating a shape or a perfect yoga pose, we will eventually – be able to move in a way that is tension-free.

You may be interested to read these past blogs.  I will be re-tweaking them and any comments are most welcome.

The feel of Balance


Emotions and Pain

In the next blog I will investigate Dr Alan Watkins talk on rhythmic breathing.


An experiment in Sound

None of us were quite sure how the workshop on 19th January would go.  As the yoga teacher involved, I aimed to prepare participants for lying down for 35 minutes  and to introduce the notion of listening, sounds and silence.

The sound therapist presented a sound bath which was well received and which seemed to help some participants to get to a state of deep relaxation quite quickly.  One participant experienced “losing her body” and felt that the sound bath produced the “purest sounds”.  Another saw imagery that was peaceful.  This is probably attributed to being in a relaxed state between wakefulness and sleep – the “dozing off” time.  The participant did report : “..I think I fell asleep..”  Perhaps this person was experiencing a dominance of theta brainwaves??

There are five main frequency brain waves: Gamma (highest) Beta, Alpha, Theta, Delta (slowest recorded). The brain produces consistent waves at all frequencies. Everything we or say is regulated by the frequency of brain waves. Thus, throughout the day in your waking state, your EEG will display all 5 types of brain waves at the same time. However, one particular brain wave will be dominant depending on the state of consciousness that you are in.  In normal activity, brain waves are of the beta type. However, during meditation, there is a shift in brain activity, with alpha waves the most commonly observed. This increase in alpha wave activity is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system – the “rest and digest” system.

As I understand it, and I am still trying to understand, Sound Therapy works upon using vibrations and resonance to calm the listener’s brain – to slow down the brain frequency.  This is claimed to get the listening brain to alpha brainwave day dreaminess quite quickly and then the deeper relaxation associated with theta follows.  The BAST website states:

……At BAST we specialise in combining instruments in a specific way to influence brainwave frequencies, enabling a person to enter an altered state of consciousness (ASC) similar to very deep relaxation or meditation. In this state many different therapeutic process occur……

I become a trifle “wobbly” about the “altered state of consciousness” claim and wonder why since I benefit from and teach approaches to meditation and would happily say that meditation can make changes to our awareness.   Perhaps, it is the linking of ASC and therapy (a friend’s observation, not mine – but I think that I agree).  ASC is defined in Wikipedia as “.. any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state..” The term was used in conjunction with hypnosis.  It seems to be defined as a temporary change in one’s mental state – an altered state of awareness”. You may find this short video enlightening – or amusing

Crucially, none of the workshop participants experienced a negative reaction to the soundbath.  A couple of us were distracted by exterior construction noise but some said that they did not notice this or that they thought it was part of the soundbath.

Another participant thought that some of the soundbath was a recording.  I found this interesting since the British Academy of Sound Therapy website refers to a study that compared the effects of a 35 minute live soundbath with a recording of the same.  The soundbath matched exactly the one presented in the workshop – Himalayan singing bowls, transitioning to Gongs, transitioning to crystal singing bowls, transitioning to therapeutic percussion.  In the study the soundbath was live, where subjects lay on the floor and received around 35 minutes of sound (as in the workshop)  and by a recording of the same which was available online. The study set out to answer the following questions.

  1.  Is live sound more or less effective than digitally recorded and delivered sound?
  2. What are the conscious altering effects of this method and to what degree are the domains effected?
  3. What are the therapeutic effects of sound induced ASC?

The data showed positive effects upon physical relaxation, imagery, positive mood, insightfulness, transcendence and ineffability (I struggle to understand these last 2) across both the live and recorded soundbath. The live performance seemed to produce a more energizing experience – perhaps due to the physical vibrations of the instruments – and the recording was felt to me more immersive – perhaps due to the blocking out of external noise.  One participant had suggested that a recorded version might be more useful for that very reason.

I’m also looking at medical research and see that in 1946 a specific sound therapy known as audio-psycho-phonology was developed by Dr Alfred Tomatis (1920 – 2001), a French Ear, Nose & Throat specialist. This therapy  bridges medicine, psychology, music therapy, speech therapy, and special education. Also that Sound Therapy is used by the British Tinnitus Society to help sufferers and that one of the recordings available from the Society is Widex Zen Therapy,  a programme addressing all three aspects of tinnitus distress –  the auditory aspects, attention and emotion:

….Zen fractal tones stimulate passive listening, reduce Tinnitus awareness, promote relaxation and interrupt the Tinnitus-stress cycle. Zen noise can provide additional relief from Tinnitus….

We are having another go in February.  This will be a different presentation than last time.  As always, comments are most welcome.





Sounds and Silence

20181206_140403There is a brief calm at the beginning of a new year when all the noise has subsided and we prepare for what is to come.  We may think back and forth – from what has passed and to what will be.

This blog first took shape in January 2017 and a “new voice” sounded for me on the 17th of that month.

43  years ago , on 17th January 1966, Simon and Garfunkel released their album, The Sound of Silence. The title song first featured on their first album Wednesday Morning, 3am, released in October 1964, but it’s commercial failure led to the duo splitting – Paul Simon returned England and Art Garfunkel to his studies at Columbia University.  By the spring of 1965 the song was receiving airtime and Tom Hudson,  producer at Columbia Studios, added electric instruments to the acoustic track and released it in September 1965. The Sound of Silence hit no. 1 in January 1966.  Simon and Garfunkel hastily reunited and recorded a second album –The Sound of Silence – an attempt to capitalize upon the success of the title song. The song was a top-ten hit in multiple countries worldwide. in 2012, the song along with the rest of the album  was added to the National Recording Registry in the Library of Congress for being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically important”.

There are many commentators on Paul Simon’s song but during I have been struck by  the words of Dr Don Saliers, who recorded his thoughts when, in 2013, Paul Simon spoke at Emory University as part of the Richard Ellman Lecture in Modern Literature:

“…At a time when there was a lot of noise….and coming chaos ..that notion of silence as a friend and the ambiguity of silence, made the lyrics resonate with us…

He refers to the song being taken up by an America mourning the death of John Kennedy and to the assassinations that were to come.  Dr Saliers adds _ “Silence can be a refuge and silence can be a phenomenally difficult reality….

silent raindrops
wells of silence

So silence is refuge, silence is a friend……
…….Reference to people talking a lot but not listening

…..Silence of the interior life….

Saliers is a Professor of Theology and Worship, Emeritus at Emory University, a private research establishment in Atlanta.  In 2013 Paul Simon’s series went under the title: The Insomniac’s Lullaby: Awake and Aware of the Time”.

Sound of Silence.  Interior life.  Listening. Awake and Aware.  These are words commonly found in mindfulness manuals.  Jon Kabat Zinn uses them in The Breathscape Practice for Cultivating Mindfulness.  In Mindfulness: a practical guide to Finding Pace in a Frantic World by Williams and Penman, a Sounds and Thoughts meditation encapsulates these key words and thoughts:

We are immersed in a soundscape of enormous depth and variety. Just take a moment to listen……. Even when you are in quiet room, you can still pick up muffled sounds. It might be your breath….Even silence contains sounds…
………..This constantly fluxing soundscape is just like
your thought stream….” pp 141-143

Williams and Penman explain that the The Sounds and Thoughts meditation gradually reveals how similar ares ound and thought. Both appear as if from nowhere. Both can seem random and we have no control over their arising. Both are enormously potent and carry immense momentum…

This connection has been highlighted in more detail to me recently by a student of the British Academy of Sound Therapy (BAST). I had my first taste of Sound Therapy a few weeks ago and was curious.  Sound therapists believe that we are all made up of different energy frequencies. They use sound frequencies to interact with these, thus attempting to rebalance the body’s energy.

Sound therapy was formally introduced to the UK in 2000 with the establishment of BAST. The BAST website expands upon the approach:

The BAST method of sound therapy combines carefully considered therapeutic sound techniques which have been shown to affect physiology, neurology and psychology with a form of reflective enquiry (a kind of questioning). This approach has been shown to be very effective at improving health and wellbeing.

Sound therapy is a complementary therapy used alongside orthodox medicine. As such, it wise to ask questions of the therapist if you have any queries or doubts.

Before each session, the practitioner will ask the client about their medical history and any current health problems. The practitioner will then adapt their treatment accordingly, using relaxing or stimulating sounds to try to rebalance the body – gongs, drums, bells, bowls, tuning forks and the human voice are all used.
Sound has been used as a healing or calming tool for thousands of years. Himalayan singing bowls (standing bells that “sing”) have been used throughout Asia for thousands of years in prayer and meditation, and are now used to promote relaxation and wellbeing.  Music therapy is a creative arts therapy in which a music therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients improve their physical and mental health.  Sound has been used for thousands of years in a healing sense – overtone chanting from Central Asia, for example – yet now it is featuring more prominently in neuroscience journals and webpages etc.

Joshua Leeds, the author of The Power of Sound is an expert in the field of psychoacoustics, the study of the effects of sound on the human nervous system. He writes about the power of sound:

…creating a frequency and vibration for someone that’s conducive for him or her to heal. Sound healing is trending up. It’s like where yoga was 15 years ago. People are realizing that sound is a viable medium to address distress, enhance learning….

I am still investigating and am in discussion with two practitioners on the subject of a workshop – Yoga and Sound Therapy.  Wendy is a Sound Therapist- in- training and Heather is a Reiki Master and a qualified Counsellor.  We aim to run the workshop for small group of 6 people who would evaluate the experience with the 3 practitioners.  A second blog will report on the findings.

If you are interested, we will send a more detailed account of Wendy’s approach, and of how the session will run . For dates, check the website.

Please follow the links.  Forward any comments or queries.

Have a very Happy 2019.  I look forward to seeing some of you next week.


Hamstrings – stretch or retrain?

Related image

The word derives Old English ham, hom which originally referred to the back of the knee.  By the late 15th century it signified the back of the thigh – the thigh or hock of an animal – ie. he squatted down on his hams.

The diagram shows the 3 hamstring muscles, that run up the back of the thigh, the Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, and Biceps Femoris.  Their function is knee flexion (bending the knee) and hip extension (driving the upper leg backwards as in sprinting.  The hamstrings also act as a braking system so that when we walk downhill, it is the hamstrings that slow us down.

Tight hamstrings are common and can cause problems because they form such an integral part of the posterior chain.  Tight hamstrings can pull the hips and pelvis back into a posterior pelvic tilt which then flattens the lower back.  This usually points to weakness in the abdominals, gluts and hamstrings.  

Image result for tight hamstrings and anterior pelvis tilt

An excessive anterior or forward tilt of the pelvis is usually associated of tight hip flexors and results in a pull on the back muscles and strain upon the hamstrings which are lengthened and weakened.

However, the intricate workings of these muscles with antagonists and many synergists is a complex issue to address in yoga classes.  Whereas physiotherapists may concentrate upon the rehabiliation of a certain muscle group and use manual therapy with great expertise, yoga teachers often seem to focus upon stretching hamstrings.  Which may not always be the answer. Where we can make a difference  is by practising helpful functional movments which enable students to sense imbalances through a heightened sense of their bodies in the space in which they occupy.  Sounds high falutin but if you look at the image above and then imagine looking up and looking down with a sense of the pelvis moving forward and then back, with a sense of balanced movement over the legs – repeating this regularly and very intelligently, then gradually one might realise that the fluidity or range of movement is impaired by tight hamstrings or hip flexors (among other things, of course)

Where we can also help is by focusing upon the cause of the problem.  In this way we can highlight the function and encourage students to sense how certain unhelpful habitual movements may have led to imbalances.  I am probably stating the obvious but, for example:

Sitting for long periods and reducing movement, shortens the hamstrings.  Thus when we stand the hamstrings will feel tighter.  Good practice is to get up and move around every 40 – 50 minutes.  As yoga practitioners, we know how to easily practice cat and cow pose; downward dog or any elements of a Salute.  It is easier for us I think. NOTE – In the image above, the pose would be all about hamstrings at the detriment of the spine, which seems very unhelpful.  Tight hamstrings pull the sitting bones down at the back causing the lumbar spine to round out. I would encourage students to bend their knees in dog pose if  hamstrings are tight: Image result for yoga stickman images for half virasana in yoga

Tight quadriceps pull the pelvis forward, thus lengthening the hamstrings.So although your hamstrings may feel tight they may actually just be long and weak. In this case, it is more useful to lengthen the quads and strengthen (not stretch) the Hamstrings.  If the focus is on stretching and stretching the Hamstrings then the Quads could tighten more to compensate.  In our practice we usually kneel (with blocks behind the knees if required) during every session and end with sitting movements that include half virasana (pictured below) which lengthens the quads.

Image result for images of half virasana in yoga

This is a very advanced pose and students would begin in Janusirasana and try rolling towards the long leg, supporting themselves on their arm/elbow and by holding the foot of the bent leg, gradually pull the foot back towards the buttocks thus lengthening the quads.  If this is too demanding, the student can concentrate upon mobilising the leg in the hip socket first.  Through this and other movements in which we lengthen just one leg, we discover how to sit comfortably on the ground without the extreme stretching that is part of paschimottanasana – the sitting forward bend with both legs extended.Image result for clip art of yoga seated forward bend

Illustration by Stuart Taylor, London.

NOTE:  I wouldn’t teach this pose generally, but especially to students with tight hamstrings.  I feel that it exacerbates pelvic imbalances.  I use Janusirasana in which one leg is long and the other is bent in half lotus which then reduces imbalance that may be caused by tight hamstrings on the long leg. I would not expect students to move into extreme forward bends with both legs long.

Weak abdominals. The pelvis is the muscle attachment site for both the front thigh muscles (quadriceps) and back thigh muscles (hamstrings).  The abdominals also attach to the pelvis. We have spoken a great deal this term about how the pelvis should provide a stable platform for the legs to move smoothly and efficiently beneath the pelvis Pelvis – the spiraling bowl However, performing solely upon “core exercises” such as crunches may not be as helpful as actively retraining the pelvis during movement.  Thus when we stand and investigate pelvic movement as we look up (extension) and look down (flexion), we begin to sense where our pelvis needs to “sit” in order to balance the connection between the abdominals and hamstrings.  In our rolling we strengthen the abdominals whilst putting no strain on the quads or hamstrings.  We also practise quite a lot of functional movements linked to walking.

Walking is connected to our evolutionary development and that is why practice of standing postures with both feet facing forward is so useful.  We have a deep well of experience, images, sensations that we can call upon as we practice.  A recent study showed that walking for just a few minutes ” has a significant beneficial impact upon mood, regardless of where we do it, why we do it, or what effect we expect the walk to have”.  Look at walking lifts your mood even when you don’t expect it to.  The researchers state that  “movement not only causes increased positive affect [emotional feelings] … but movement partially embodies, or in a sense reflects, positive affect.” This is what we teachers are getting at when we say “keep moving” – to which I would  add – “within your range and until it gets easier..”  This study adds to the holistic and integrated function of the whole body in human movement that we explore together in our physical yoga practice.

So, to those who worry that they do not practice regularly at home – don’t worry too much. Our approach to yoga helps us to take our yoga off the mat.  When we walk , perhaps over the coming Yuletide period, we can notice how our feet and legs carry us and how our  bones “stack up” from the ground.  We train ourselves to recall patterns – the spiralling pelvis, the feel of the outside edge of the foot providing stability and the roll of the foot and an active arch.  The pattern of movement emanating from the ground and travelling through the body , from one foot to another.  I’m getting high falutin again – it has been an busy year.  Just enjoy the movement that you have.  When you get back you may feel like moving through cat and cow poses (- moving the pelvis with awareness of the hip flexors and hamstrings) ; downward dog (lengthening the hamstrings whilst folding softly at the hips) and …-even…….Sprinters in which the hamstring of the front bent leg is strengthened and the musculature of the back leg is lengthened.  But, you know that, of course!

Merry Christmas.  Happy New Year.  See some of you in 2019.





By Teaching We learn

Have been searching for an “old adage”  along the lines of – teachers often learn more from their students than they impart.   Came across:

Docendo discimus – By teaching we learn   (attrib to Seneca the Younger 4BC-65AD)

A teacher is someone who can learn from their students, who can learn with them, and learns for them.        Robert John Meehan (1950 – )

Both were proven true when a student helped me understand (… begin to understand) a reference in the last blog of the action of the pelvis as “…the helix of a screw-conveyor…” Mabel Todd’sThinking Body p 200 .  I provided a simplified visual of a spiralling bucket to illustrate the action but I could not get a ‘handle’ on the “helix of a screw-conveyor”. I sought help from a well-qualified student. I was given a number of examples  – with great patience.  Still, I floundered, until the mention of an Archimedes’ Screw which enables water to be pumped from low-lying areas by turning a screw-shaped surface inside a pipe, produced a “Eureka” moment (excuse this most obvious allusion).  I could finally visualize the movement, the momentum provided by a screw conveyor to move granules or liquid.:

I am indebted to my student for helping me to clear the mist but also for jolting  my awareness back towards what I know about teaching but don’t always remember ; namely, that clarity depends upon keeping things simple, upon varied repetition and  always checking that the message is clear enough.

So, returning to the screw conveyor and with my somewhat ill-fitting mechanic’s hat on:

Mabel Todd described the integrated movement of the pelvis, legs, spine, shoulders in walking as a “composite spring” which provides propulsion so that the spine and pelvis  can move on the leg bones – “..rock back and forth and sideways, allowing a rebound and recovery of balance between each step..” The Thinking Body p134.  Thus, when I suggest that we “spring into a one-legged balance; perhaps some form of tree pose – you now know what I am thinking.  Teachers inspired by Mabel’s thinking use imagery to help change muscle patterns.  Key to this is an understanding of what the movement is.  The nervous system (messenger of signals) , muscular (the motor)  and skeletal (support) all have a specific role but for movement to occur all three systems must be involved.  Alexander taught that any action involves the use of the whole self, The Use of The Self ,1932.

In the 1980’s Serge Gracovetsky, Phd, (Dept of Electrical and Computing Engineering, University of Montreal),  wrote about human locomotion in his Spinal Engine theory.  He studied the transfer of energy in the spine and wrote that deep spinal movement is at the centre of walking and running, underlying the movement of our arms and legs. It had  generally been perceived that the legs carried along a passive trunk –  The Pedestrian Theory of Locomotion. Gracovetsky said that the limbs amplify movement that originates in the musculature of the spine and trunk.  The arms in running, for example, amplify spinal movement to counterbalance leg movement and to assist in raising and lowering the body’s center of gravity to support the stride.

Image result for images for Gracvetsky's spinal engine theory

With thanks to for the visual aid. If we can understand and visualize this movement, perhaps we can be more aware of a part of the movement where we habitually hold tension, thereby compensating for that “wonky” bit with another part of our musculature – Sensing our bodies to reduce movement compensation.

I called this to mind when mention of some hamstring problems featured recently in class.   I began to wonder if we fixate upon tight hamstrings we dilute the sense of the spiralling pelvis which will, I think, impact upon the fluidity of movement.  Very tight hamstrings do restrict pelvic rotation and range of movement. Thus, since there is a mechanical and a neurological aspect to muscle tightness, it may be more difficult, for some, to sense the subtlety of the spiralling pelvis (more on this in the next blog).  This is also why simply stretching tight hamstrings is not always the best thing to do.  The brain needs to learn which muscles should fire for efficient movement.  Rather than static stretches, we explored movement through the pelvis, spine and leg as we used gravity to support us.  More useful I felt – as is the beloved Sprinters in strengthening the hamstring of the front bent leg whilst lengthening the musculature of the back leg.  We concentrate upon keeping a quiet foot, as we lift a relaxed spine.  It can be tougher to explore the whole movement, slowly however, since mindful awareness of all three branches of the neuromuscular system means noticing when excess tension creeps in – namely, when we don’t feel ok.  Let me know what you think.

*END NOTE: You may be interested to know that the aforesaid student was not convinced by my learning and supplemented the teaching with a concrete visual aid.  That is what I call effective teaching.

See some of you next week.

Pelvis – the spiraling bowl.

Image result for image of the pelvis as a bucket(with thanks to for the illustration)

Mabel Todd described the spiralling of the pelvis in  “The Thinking Body”. I have linked this book in a previous post –Standing and walking – free the pelvis and I have returned to it following a recent query from a student.  It is always interesting to teach a different group and to be asked to clarify elements of one’s teaching.

The query concerned the movement of the pelvis in walking.  I had an image of a moving bowl/bucket in my head as I taught and I remembered Mabel Todd’s vivid description.  She quotes a mechanical engineer who was asked to describe the act of walking in simple mechanical terms.  His response:

“.. a combination of undulatory motions in three dimensions, the result of which    described a spiral like that followed by a point on the helix of a screw-conveyor…”       Thinking Body p 200

Simple?  What??  Todd helped me out with this by drawing a picture of this spiralling movement:

.….the tipping of the pelvis from side to side and from back to front as it rotates alternately on each femoral head….”

I realized that previously using “side bending and rotating” to describe pelvic movement in walking, may not have been clear enough (see Iliopsoas – the powerhouse for another example of taking prior learning for granted!!)  If the pelvis doesn’t tip forward and backwards we would end up with crab walking which is, of course, a well-used technique to strengthen gluteals****. When  movement in the  hip-joint is restricted and the pelvis doesn’t tip back and forth, as it should, the result can be a heavy one-sided movement.

Our walking pattern relies upon stability and fluidity.  We work on good foot placement and the crouch and spring muscles that power our walking when we practice our beloved “sprinters”.  The two arches of the feet – length and width – provide sprung support as the body weight is placed upon it.  The loose-hinged ankle joint is helped by the huge calf muscle and hinged knee joints allows the legs to swing freely but not “beyond a straight line in the opposite direction” ( Thinking Body p 194).    The free moving thigh bone sitting in the hip-joint forms a crucial part of healthy and efficient movement.  The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body and the head of the femur forms a ball and socket joint with the hip.  The acetabulum is a concave area in the pelvis into which the femoral head fits.  Mabel Todd provides a beautiful description:

“…The upper end of the thigh bones are almost globes, which are received into the deep cup-like cavities of the haunch bones. …”

The use of  haunch bones  helps us to visualize the movement of the pelvis and leg as we move up and down, forward and backwards.   Todd acknowledges the role of the ligaments that connect the pelvis to the femur but gets really excited about the articular cartilage that covers the femoral head and the acetabulum. This cartilage is kept slippery by fluid made in the synovial membrane (joint lining). As a result, the bones move against each other easily:

“…The smooth rounded head of the thigh bone, moist with glairy fluid, fits so perfectly into the smooth rounded cavity that received it, that it hold firmly by suction or atmospheric pressure…” The Thinking Body p194

“Glairy fluid”…. quite an archaic word meaning viscous and transparent, slimy and it probably dates Mabel Todd’s writing.  The Thinking Body was published in 1937 and her enthusiasm for the mechanics of the hip-joint denotes her passion for the study of movement.  She died in 1956 and is known as the founder of what is now termed ideokineses, which was developed as a mind-body modality to help injured dancers. Todd’s ideas involved using anatomically based, creative visual imagery and consciously relaxed movement to refine neuromuscular coordination.  She was not a dancer but her ideas were popular amongst dance communities in New York and Boston where she lived. I am grateful to mindful somatics for the photo below showing Mabel demonstrating:

Image result for Mabel Todd demonstrating crawling photo

Wonderful photo of Mabel wearing what looks like underwear.  Again thanks to Mindful Somatics for this information and the fact that Mabel would have liked to have been an engineer.  This explains her ability to “translate” the engineer’s description of pelvic movement at the top of this post.  Also, her vivid description of the pelvis as a shock absorber balancing forces in two directions:

….the downward fall of weight from the trunk and the upward thrust from the ground as it receives the impact of the weight….

Todd’s work has influenced many and is often mentioned alongside the Feldenkreis Method and yet her name seems to be less well-known than Moshe Feldenkreis.  Mabel Todd was a contemporary of F.M.Alexander, another name more familiar than Mabel’s I think. Many know of, and have practised, the Alexander Method.

Mabel Todd was a pioneer in linking thought and movement.  Lulu Sweigard gave the name of ‘Ideokinesis’ to Todd’s approach.  Barbara Clark was another who furthered Mabel Todd’s ideas and Joan Skinner developed the Skinner Releasing Technique (SRT) as a result of Mabel’s work.  SRT works upon the idea that we are all born with natural ease of movement and that we lose touch with this natural ease. The technique encourages us to “let go”.  Sound familiar to those of us who enjoy a sensory approach to yoga practice.

We need to celebrate Mabel as we play around on the mat, on all fours and when practising the walking pattern.  Her vivid prose and the detailed drawings in her book provide great clarity of thought and expression.

If interested in previous posts on pelvis, walking. somatics, intelligent movement etc – go to the home page of scroll down to the search box at the bottom of the page and type in the relevant words.  Hopefully, something will come up.  It may not be as in-depth as you require but it may be of some use.  Please ask for clarification if necessary.

No sessions next week due to half-term.  See some of you the following week.

*** re crab walking – It seems that “bear walking” is favoured by some as a more effective strengthening exercise for the gluteals!!!  Please investigate if interested.


Feel the whole


As I published the last blog Fear and fearlessness in yoga practice, Rick Hanson’s newsletter  Feel Whole. Just One thing landed in my inbox .  Hanson is an American psychologist who has written extensively on inner resilience.

In this latest newsletter he  includes a practice on cultivating a sense of “wholeness” and feeling at ease with oneself.  He refers to the importance of listening to “bottom up signals” as opposed to the “big boss”:

The mega part – the big boss – is of course the inner executive, the decision-maker and driver – some call it the ego – centered in neural circuits in the prefrontal cortex, behind your forehead. This part is determined to a fault, running things top down, ignoring bottom-up signals of growing fatigue, irritability, burnout, and issues with others

It always seems a little forced when I make links between our yoga practice and such erudite statements but – these posts and our practice is all about sharing.  So – deep breath – when we practised soft forward bends → uttanasana →- squats this week, we did so with a sense of the whole movement emanating from well-placed footprints. We were aware of the work in the hamstrings and gluts but the emphasis was upon the movement and to what extent we were able to map this movement and sense this movement travelling through the body.  All about the whole movement.  This experiential learning necessitates a willingness to  “listen to the body” and a little hint about being brave enough to pause, sometimes helps some of us.

I am still excited about the fact that by pressing into one footprint, for example, the sensory messages that allow us to lift, drop, flex, extend, side bend and rotate can be felt so clearly – if we relax.  If you come to class, you will have practised the one-legged psoas release movement.  Freeing our breathing helps immeasurably, of course, and we work on this at the beginning of every session.

I gave some footprint “homework” to one class and hope that even with such a tiny movement – just one thing – you will see results.  Any of the toe stuff featured in previous blogs will help:

Plantar Fasciitis

Arches – high and low

You may find something else in previous posts that resonates more clearly now or that you may wish to challenge.  I am in the process of reflecting upon previous posts in order to test whether they stand up to scrutiny.  By using the search box at the bottom of the homepage of you can submit a keyword and, hopefully, a post will pop up.

There is much to explore on Rick Hanson’s site .  You can subscribe to the free newsletter “Just One Thing” or download some of the guided meditations.

See some of you next week.

Fear and fearlessness in yoga practice

Fear is a potent emotion which generally manifests as a response to an immediate danger.   A sense of dread alerts us, through the amygdala that our physical selves may be harmed.

The amygdala is part of the limbic system.  It is responsible for the response and memory of emotions – especially fear.

We tend to lump anxiety and fear together and they are certainly linked.  However, anxiety is a general state of distress that is longer lasting than fear and is often a response to a non-specific “threat”.  When we hold onto fear a sense of foreboding keeps the body on alert and the resulting tension depletes our emotional and physical reserves.   Movement can help to reduce tension.  Rocking is neurologically soothing.

Our knowledge of ourselves is organized through neurological patterns.  Bodily movement signals to the brain that there are decisions to make; opportunities to take; dangers to avoid, and pleasures to pursue.  Movements in a yoga class which stiffen the body and which are held in order to create a shape, are mechanical and undermine the fluid nature of ourselves.  In our yoga sessions we concentrate upon simple movements which create a “level playing field” for all participants.  By that, I mean that students can make choices as to the range of movement that is helpful to them as individuals, precisely because the movements themselves are ones which maintain human function.  It also means that these are movements that can be “taken home” and fitted into a busy schedule.  Relaxing the diaphragm becomes a familiar pattern, pressing into the feet to free the pelvis is established as part of our walking pattern.   We begin to believe that we can rely upon our bodies as tension is released.

Some people find the invitation to explore movement on the yoga mat with an emphasis upon curiosity as too unstructured for their liking.  This is understandable. Teaching within a framework of sensory movement does have guidelines (especially safety guidelines) but it requires some degree of fearlessness on the part of students since you may be exploring a movement in a slightly different way to the person beside you. You may have to be brave enough to stop.

When I took part in a 5Rhythms dance session, I floundered  due to the freedom on offer – to move in accordance with our bodies’ response to the music.   initially, I was taken back to movement and music classes at school and the encouragement to be a tree ( although that does sound like a yoga class also???)  in truth, I felt a bit silly.  However, as I relaxed, became less self-conscious and more fearless, I tried to “let go” but I am not saying that it was easy.

The practice of the 5Rhythms is said by Gabrielle Roth to move the body in order to still the mind.  The five rhythms are Flowing, Staccato, Chaos, Lyrical and Stillness and when danced in sequence, are known as a “Wave.” A typical Wave takes about an hour to dance.  On paper this was familiar territory for me – the first piece “flowing” promotes movement that celebrates our fluid body; the final piece is “stillness”. The Wikipedia entry describes the work “…taught through a series of maps that explore the terrain of the inner and outer worlds of individuals, their relationships to others and the space around them…”  This notion of the space around us and our relationship to others was very interesting.  The final sharing of experience was so useful, something which is difficult to programme into a weekly yoga class, unless the class is a small one I think.

So, structure is useful, it supports our learning can help us to become less fearful.  In our practice we do not shy away from yoga asana that demand a degree of fearlessness, such as wheel, head balance and shoulder balance, but we approach them in a way that permits us to “back off” when tension creeps into a movement.  This requires a strong sense of self since we are not bound by the need to perform.  Our rolling back towards a form of shoulder stand is practiced gradually as we strengthen the mapping of flexion in the motor cortex.  We always have an “escape route” because we have a deep understanding of how the body works.  This applies to the scariest of inversions – head balance –  when Pete Blackaby’s wonderful notes on its purpose are so important:

  • To learn how to quiet yourself through finding useful support through your arms and head, even as the movement becomes more complex
  • To help you notice at what stage you bring unhelpful tension into the movement
  • To help you learn when to stop

Intelligent Yoga, Listening to the body’s innate wisdom (2nd Edition) p122

It is so striking that these notes encourage us to be contemplative rather than mechanical in our practice.  We spend much time cultivating curiosity and asking ourselves how we can organize the body in a way that is helpful.  We practice a standing backbend quite regularly – often following on from tree pose.  We investigate whether the spine can move as an integrated whole, on balanced feet and in a way that does not stress the neck (when strong neck extensors overpower the deep neck flexors and the chin lifts excessively) or lumbar spine (resulting in lordosis and flared rib cage). It always comes comes back to the breathing being smooth and easy – ie. when do you hold your breath?  It’s the whole versus the parts again:

Parts versus the whole in yoga practice.

We’ll be rocking and rolling next week.  See some of you then.

Starting up again


…is hard. 

When I posted the July blog, I signed off with reference to a “short break”.  This hailed a sense of freedom from the routine of thinking about, planning and executing the fortnightly posts.  After 6 weeks – refreshed, invigorated and making my way back to the keyboard, I found that starting up again was not so easy.  Lack of ideas, or fear of committing myself once again to practicing the very things from whence thoughts and ideas spring? A bit of both – as is often the case.

In our yoga practice we usually begin by exploring our breathing and how we feel in sensing our bodies. In this way we remain curious and open ourselves up to what is new. Crucially, we start afresh……

….Developing the ability to begin again is very important.  To start afresh with an open mind In this way we avoid taking old thoughts and habits into a practice….

These are the words of the Buddhist monk, Thich Nhat Hanh in his book “The Miracle of Mindfulness” (Random House pub) and they acknowledge the difficulties in making a start.  My later- than -planned return to the blog was a result of having broken the habit but were other factors at play?

In a Radio 4 programme “Why should I exercise doctor?”.,  the presenter, Shari Vahl, acknowledges her poor fitness level and asks the  question “Why?” , despite knowing that regular movement/exercise is not just a good idea but is crucial to health, she doesn’t do it.  Why is it so difficult to establish such a useful habit?

 Barriers such as lack of time and lack of interest are highlighted but the aforesaid doctor (Michael Mosley) felt that the main obstacle is fear:

“.people are scared of physical activity.they don’t know what to do, how to

Common sense points to the importance of us being as active as our individual circumstances allow. However, the term “physical activity” can promote all manner of fears and discomfort in those who are unused to …well. what do I call it?  In an 2015 BMJ article, Dr Douglas Kamerow wrote:

……...There is much evidence showing that regular exercise is one of the most important things you can do for your health, better than any pill that we have.

Brief digression for a small rant: why do experts insist on the term “physical activity,” which sounds clinical and scientific, instead of “exercise,” which only sounds arduous and undesirable? (I guess I answered my own question.)…....

Dr Kamerow defines exercise as :

“.. anything that gets the skeletal muscles moving and that expends energy…” 

The NHS site “Move More“, has some very practical tips on how to become more knowledgeable and thus more comfortable in starting up a regular exercise habit.  The best tip is “start small”.  We follow this approach in our yoga practice.  We practice small, generally slow, functional movements that help to calm the nervous system and, with practice, helps to re-educate us in movements that are useful for the body.  We don’t, for example, practice wide astride standing poses because these can create tension in the externally rotated hip and thence in the lumbar spine.  We do repeat patterns of flexion, extension and rotation of the spine which, with practice, become very natural to us and lead us away from discomfort towards feeling comfortable in our bodies.  I am convinced that this works.

At a recent workshop with Pete Blackaby, we were asked to describe exactly how we “felt” as we practised yoga. Interestingly, at first we all used language that was judgemental –  “tight hamstrings; weak core..” etc.  Pete encouraged us to use a vocabulary of sensation rather than use value judgements.  I believed this to be a small but very powerful start in helping students to feel more confident and comfortable about their own practice.   Being less critical helped some of us to perform the movements with less discomfort.  By refocusing the mind on useful sensations, I practised with less effort.  So interesting that the human tendency to focus upon negative experiences and traits also seemed to influence the way in which we described our practice.

Negativity tends to make us vulnerable to fears about starting up/ again.  In thinking about this, I looked again at some Zen teachings and came upon a practices to  beat the fears that cause procrastination.   – namely,   “shining a light” on the fears.  The advice to run small tests to check whether the fears are rational or not, struck a chord:

…….Run a tiny test at first: do a little of the task, and see what happens. Was it horrible?

Most likely, a small test will give you decent results, but you still won’t trust that your fear is groundless. So run another small test, then another. By doing small tests, you aren’t risking anything really bad, and you can quickly get results.

So how do you run small tests? Some examples might include doing just 5-10 minutes of a scary task, practicing just the most absolute basic skill of a group of skills you don’t know……

So, the first blog back is a small start.  I also re-read an earlier blog to remind myself that Practice makes for more practice  Classes re-start next week and we will begin with small, probably slow, repetitive movements.   We will also foster positivity because bodies do heal if we keep moving and as we heal we can begin to increase the range of movement.

If you are interested in the NHS online resources mentioned above, here are links:

Fitness Quiz

 Movement Tips

The new Heart Health Quiz – a “heart age calculator” has received criticism from both users and some medical professionals.  Some GPs are concerned that it tells everyone over 30 to go to their GP if their cholesterol level or BP is unknown. Oxford University’s senior clinical research fellow, Dr Ben Goldacre, just appointed as the chair of the government’s new health technology advisory board, said ; “The heart age tool was a nice idea, a fun gimmick, but it was poorly executed..”  Other doctors are reported to say that the campaign which runs until 30th September, will have little effect upon patient footfall. 

There are fears on both sides.  This seems to be a “popular concept” at present. Fodder for another post.


The photo at the top of this blog is by:

  Go to rawpixel's profilerawpixel@rawpixel





Ayurveda and Yoga

cropped-cropped-whirl-spiral-movement-abstract-background.jpgComments following the regular posts are most welcome and the response to Anxiety and walking…..Can I link this to the World Cup??? drew attention to balanced treatment in all schools of medicine.  The reference to Ayurvedic medicine may interest some of you: 

“Ayur” is a Sanskrit term meaning “life”and “Veda” refers to “knowledge”.  Ayurvedic medicine is a system of Indian traditional medicine and is often practiced alongside yoga for its natural healing properties.  The guiding principles are:

  • the mind and the body are inextricably connected
  • nothing has more power to heal and transform the body than the mind

Ayurvedic therapy is tailored to the individual and Mukunda Stiles explored this in his book  “Structural Yoga Therapy – Adapting to the Individual”  Mukunda (Tom) Stiles – 1949- 2014 – started to practice yoga in 1969 whilst at West Point Military Academy.  His emphasis upon “structure” may sound very different to the functional approach that I write about, but his differentiated approach to teaching was very influential.  He taught us that different skeletal types could not be forced into rigid shapes.  Watch him teach this in reference to arms and knees . Great to hear him talk about women’s “carry angle” and how male teachers may not cater for this.  Another You Tube video shows him teaching alternative hand placements for poses such as cat, dog and plank.  He refers to “standard alignment” which he will change in order that the students do not damage their wrists and elbows.  These placements are ones that we explore in our practice..

Watch Mukunda Stiles as he taught  “Perfecting asana”.  He emphasizes 3 elements:

  • relaxation of effort
  • smooth and steady breath
  • live your yoga in everyday life**

**This is my interpretation of his reference to Sutra 47 – “…promote an identification of yourself as living within the infinite breath of life…”  Interesting to hear your views.

In Ayruvedic Yoga Therapy , Mukunda Stiles recommended specific asana practice for different constitutional types – the Ayurvedic doshas: vata, pitta and kapha.  It can be interesting to take  “The Dosha Test”.

The British Wheel of Yoga is now offering a training course in Ayruvedic principles for teachers and practitioners of yoga.  It is run by Clearmind Institute which also offers courses in Mindfulness.  On which subject, if you are doing the Yale University Happiness course I hope that it is going well.

I will be taking a short break.  There will be a few classes in August